Selected Publications



G. Saper, S. Tsitkov, P. Katira, and H. Hess*: “Robotic end-to-end fusion of microtubules powered by kinesin”, Science Robotics, 6, abj7200 (2021)

H. Hess: “Muscle on demand”, Nature Materials, 20, 1040-1041 (2021)

Y. Zhang, and H. Hess*: “Actuating macroscopic machines with nanoscopic engines”, Matter, 4, 1100-1101 (2021)

Y. Zhang, and H. Hess*: “Chemically-powered swimming and diffusion in the microscopic world”, Nature Reviews Chemistry, 1-11 (2021)


M.J. Armstrong, J.B. Rodriguez III, P. Dahl, P. Salamon, H. Hess*, and P. Katira*: “Power Law Behavior in Protein Desorption Kinetics Originating from Sequential Binding and Unbinding”, Langmuir, 36, 13527-13534 (2020)

S. Tsitkov, Y. Song, J.B. Rodriguez III, Y. Zhang, and H. Hess*: “Kinesin-Recruiting Microtubules Exhibit Collective Gliding Motion while Forming Motor Trails”, ACS nano, 14, 16547-16557 (2020)

G. Saper and H. Hess*: “Kinesin-propelled label-free microtubules imaged with interference reflection microscopy”, New Journal of Physics, 22, 095002 (2020)

N.M. Bassir Kazeruni, J.B. Rodriguez III, G. Saper, and H. Hess*: “Microtubule Detachment in Gliding Motility Assays Limits the Performance of Kinesin-Driven Molecular Shuttles”, Langmuir, 36, 7901-7907 (2020)

Y. Zhang* and H. Hess: “Microenvironmental engineering: An effective strategy for tailoring enzymatic activities”, Chinese Journal of Chemical Engineering, 28, 2028-2036 (2020)

H. Hess: “Beyond Boltzmann: The Potential Energy Distribution of Objects in the Atmosphere”, arXiv, 2001.02081v1 (2020)

Y. Zhang* and H. Hess: “Inhibitors in Commercially Available 2,2′-Azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) Affect Enzymatic Assays”, Analytical Chemistry, 92, 1502-1510 (2020)

G. Saper and H. Hess*: “Synthetic Systems Powered by Biological Molecular Motors”, Chemical Reviews, 120, 288-309 (2020)


D. Inoue, G. Gutmann, T. Nitta, A. Rashedul Kabir, A. Konagaya, K. Tokuraku, K. Sada, H. Hess and A. Kakugo*: “Adaptation of Patterns of Motile Filaments under Dynamic Boundary Conditions”, ACS Nano, 13, 12452-12460 (2019)

Y. Zhang and H. Hess*: “Enhanced Diffusion of Catalytically Active Enzymes”, ACS central science, 5, 939-948 (2019)

H. Hess, P. Katira, I.H. Riedel-Kruse, and S. Tsitkov: “Molecular motors in materials science”, MRS Bulletin, 44, 113-118 (2019)

S. Tsitkov, and H. Hess*: “Design Principles for a Compartmentalized Enzyme Cascade Reaction”, ACS Catalysis, 9, 2432–2439 (2019)

N.M. Bassir Kazeruni, S. Tsitkov, and H. Hess*: “Assembling Molecular Shuttles Powered by Reversibly Attached Kinesins.”, JoVE, 143 (2019)

A. Akay, and H. Hess*: “Deep Learning: Current and Emerging Applications in Medicine and Technology”, IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics, 28, 906-920 (2019)


Y. Zhang, M.J. Armstrong, N.M. Bassir Kazeruni, and H. Hess*: “Aldolase Does Not Show Enhanced Diffusion in Dynamic Light Scattering Experiments”, Nano Letters, 18, 8025-8029 (2018)

H. Hess* and G. Saper: “Engineering with biomolecular motors”, Accounts of Chemical Research, 51, 3015-3022 (2018)

S. Tsitkov, T. Pesenti, H. Palacci, J. Blanchet, and H. Hess*: “Queueing Theory-Based Perspective of the Kinetics of “Channeled” Enzyme Cascade Reactions”, ACS Catalysis, 8, 10721-10731 (2018)

J.J. Keya, A.M.R. Kabir, D. Inoue, K. Sada, H. Hess, A. Kuzuya*, and A. Kakugo: “ Control of swarming of molecular robots”, Scientific Reports, 8, 11756 (2018)

H. Palacci and H. Hess*: “Scalable Natural Gradient Langevin Dynamics in Practice”, arXiv preprint arXiv:1806.02855 (2018)

H. Hess*: “A Landauer Limit for Robotic Manipulation”, arXiv preprint arXiv:1803.07415 (2018)

Y. Zhang, S. Tsitkov and H. Hess*: “Complex dynamics in a two-enzyme reaction network with substrate competition”, Nature Catalysis, 1, 276–281 (2018) COVER

X.Zhao, H. Palacci, V. Yadav, M. M. Spiering, M. K. Gilson, P.J. Butler, P. J., H. Hess*, S. J. Benkovic* and A.Sen*: “Substrate-driven chemotactic assembly in an enzyme cascade”, Nature Chemistry, 10 (3), 311-317 (2018)

M.J. Armstrong, S. Tsitkov and H. Hess*: “Statistical inference in single molecule measurements of protein adsorption”, Nanoscale Imaging, Sensing, and Actuation for Biomedical Applications XV; doi: 10.1117/12.2290918, (2018)

J.J. Keya, R. Suzuki, A.Md.R. Kabir, D. Inoue, H. Asanuma, K. Sada, H. Hess, A. Kuzuya* and A. Kakugo*: “DNA-assisted swarm control in a biomolecular motor system”, Nature Communications, 9:453 (2018)

A. T.-C. Lam, S. Tsitkov, Y. Zhang, and H. Hess*: “Reversibly Bound Kinesin-1 Motor Proteins Propelling Microtubules Demonstrate Dynamic Recruitment of Active Building Blocks”, Nano Letters, 18(2), 1530–1534 (2018)


H. Hess*: “Molecular Motor or Molecular Clock: A Question of Load”, arXiv, arXiv:1709.09054 (2017)

Y. Zhang and H. Hess*: “Toward Rational Design of High-efficiency Enzyme Cascades”, ACS Catalysis, 7(9), 6018–6027 (2017)

S. Tsitkov and H. Hess*: “Rise of the Nanorobots: Advances in Control, Molecular Detection, and Nanoscale Actuation Are Bringing Us Closer to a New Era of Technology Enhanced by Nanorobots”, IEEE Pulse, 8(4), 23-25 (2017)

Y. Zhang, Q. Wang, and H. Hess*: “Increasing Enzyme Cascade Throughput by pH-Engineering the Microenvironment of Individual Enzymes”, ACS Catalysis, 7(3), 2047–2051 (2017)

H. Hess* and J.L. Ross*: “Non-equilibrium assembly of microtubules: from molecules to autonomous chemical robots”, Chemical Society Reviews, 46 (18), 5570-5587 (2017)



Y. Zhang, S. Tsitkov, and H. Hess*: “Proximity does not contribute to activity enhancement in the glucose oxidase–horseradish peroxidase cascade”, Nature Communications, 7:13982 (2016)

H. Palacci, O. Idan, M.J. Armstrong, A. Agarwal, T. Nitta, and H. Hess*: “Velocity Fluctuations in Kinesin-1 Gliding Motility Assays Originate in Motor Attachment Geometry Variations”, Langmuir, 32(31), 7943–7950 (2016)

S. He and H. Hess*: “Single molecule localizations by pattern matching”, SPIE 9721, doi:10.1117/12.2213166 (2016)

S. He, X. Deng, J. Lahann, and H. Hess*: “A two-dimensional lock-in algorithm for signal analysis in patterned images”, IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, 63(11), 2436-2439 (2016)

X. Deng, S. He, F. Xie, Ch. Friedmann, H. Hess*, and J. Lahann*:“Ultrasensitive In Situ Fluorescence Analysis using Modulated Fluorescence Interference Contrast at Nanostructured Polymer Surfaces”, Advanced Materials, 28 (12), 2367–2373 (2016)

A. Sitt*, J. Soukupova, D. Miller, D. Verdi, R. Zboril, H. Hess, and J. Lahann*:“Microscale Rockets and Picoliter Containers Engineered from Electrospun Polymeric Microtubes”, Small, 12, 1432-1439 (2016)

A.T. Lam, V. VanDelinder, A.M.R. Kabir, H. Hess*, G.D. Bachand*, and A. Kakugo*: “Cytoskeletal motor-driven active self-assembly in in vitro systems”, Soft Matter, 12, 988-997 (2016)



P. Katira and H. Hess*: “Yield Strength as a Thermodynamic Consequence of Information Erasure”, arXiv, arXiv:1503.0814 (2015)

A. Sitt and H. Hess*:“Directed Transport by Surface Chemical Potential Gradients for Enhancing Analyte Collection in Nanoscale Sensors”, Nano Letters, 15(5), 3341-3350 (2015)

C.J. Zhang, A. Sitt, H.J. Koo, K.V.Waynant, H. Hess*, B.D. Pate, and P.V. Braun*:“Autonomic molecular transport by polymer films containing programmed chemical potential gradients”, Journal of the American Chemical Society, 137, 5066-5073 (2015)

E.L.P. Dumont, C. Do, and H. Hess*: “Molecular wear of microtubules propelled by surface-adhered kinesins”, Nature Nanotechnology, 10, 166-169 (2015)



A.T. Lam, C. Curschellas, D. Krovvidi, and H. Hess*: “Controlling self-assembly of microtubule spools via kinesin motor density”, Soft Matter, 10, 8731-8736 (2014)

M.J. Armstrong and H. Hess*: “The Ecology of Technology and Nanomotors”, ACS Nano, 8(5), 4070-4073 (2014)



E.L.P. Dumont, H. Belmas, and H. Hess*: “Observing the Mushroom-to-Brush Transition for Kinesin Proteins”, Langmuir, 29(49), 15142-15145 (2013)

O. Idan and H. Hess*: “Origins of Activity Enhancement in Enzyme Cascades on Scaffolds”, ACS Nano, 7(10), 8658-8665 (2013)

O. Idan and H. Hess*: “Engineering Enzymatic Cascades on Nanoscale Scaffolds”, Current Opinion in Biotechnology, 24(4), 606-611 (2013)

T. Nitta* and H. Hess: “Effect of Path Persistence Length of Molecular Shuttles on Two-stage Analyte Capture in Biosensors”, Cellular and Molecular Bioengineering, 6(1), 109-115 (2013)

R.R. Agayan, R. Tucker, T. Nitta, F. Ruhnow, W.J. Walter, S. Diez, and H. Hess*: “Optimization of Isopolar Microtubule Arrays”, Langmuir, 29(7), 2265-2272 (2013)

T. Sunagawa, A. Tanahashi, M.E. Downs, H. Hess, and T. Nitta*: “In silico evolution of guiding track designs for molecular shuttles powered by kinesin motors”, Lab on a Chip, 13(14), 2827-2833 (2013)



O. Idan and H. Hess*: “Diffusive transport phenomena in artificial enzyme cascades on scaffolds”, Nature Nanotechnology, 7, 769-770 (2012)

H. Hess: “Optimal loading of molecular bonds”, Nano Letters, 12(11), 5813-5814 (2012).

G. Brown, et al.: “Cellular and Molecular Bioengineering: A Tipping Point”, Cellular and Molecular Bioengineering, 5(3), 239-253 (2012)

A. Agarwal, E. Mobley, X. Deng, J. Lahann, and H. Hess*: “Landing Rate Measurements to Detect Fibrinogen Adsorption to Non-fouling Surfaces”, Cellular and Molecular Bioengineering, 5(3), 320-326 (2012)

S. He‡, A.T. Lam‡, Y. Jeune-Smith‡, and H. Hess*: “Modeling Negative Cooperativity in Streptavidin Adsorption onto Biotinylated Microtubules”, ‡ indicates equal contribution, Langmuir, 28(29), 10635-10639 (2012)

O. Idan, A.T. Lam, J. Kamcev, J. Gonzales, A. Agarwal, and H. Hess*: “Nanoscale Transport Enables Active Self-Assembly of Millimeter-Scale Wires”, Nano Letters, 12(1), 240-245



J.D. Crenshaw, T. Liang, H. Hess, and S.R. Phillpot: “A Cellular Automaton Approach to the Simulation of Active Self-Assembly of Kinesin-Powered Molecular Shuttles”, Journal of Computational and Theoretical Nanoscience, 8(10), 1999-2005 (2011)

I. Luria, J. Crenshaw, M.E. Downs, A. Agarwal, S.B. Seshadri, J. Gonzales, O. Idan, J. Kamcev, P. Katira, S. Pandey, T. Nitta, S.R. Phillpot, and H. Hess: “ Microtubule nanospool formation by active self-assembly is not initiated by thermal activation”, Soft Matter, 7, 3108-3115 (2011)

H. Hess and E.L.P. Dumont: “Fatigue Failure and Molecular Machine Design”, Small, 7, 1619-1623 (2011)

H. Hess: “Engineering applications of biomolecular motors”, Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering, 13, 429-450 (2011)



I.K. Jun and H. Hess: “A biomimetic, self-pumping membrane”, Advanced Materials, 22, 4823-4825 (2010)

H. Hess and L. Jaeger: “NanoBiotechnology”; (editorial), Current Opinion in Biotechnology, 21, 373-375 (2010)

P.H. Wu, A. Agarwal, H. Hess*, P.P. Khargonekar, and Y. Tseng: “Analysis of Video-Based Microscopic Particle Trajectories Using Kalman Filtering”, Biophysical Journal, 98(12), 2822-2830 (2010)

L.T. Sexton, H. Mukaibo, P. Katira, H. Hess*, S.A. Sherrill, L.P. Horne, and C.R. Martin: “An Adsorption-Based Model for Pulse Duration in Resistive-Pulse Protein Sensing”, Journal of the American Chemical Society, 132(19), 6755-6763 (2010)

Y. Jeune-Smith, A. Agarwal, and H. Hess*: “Cargo Loading onto Kinesin Powered Molecular Shuttles”, JoVE, 45 (2010)

P. Katira and H. Hess*: “Two-stage capture employing active transport enables sensitive and fast biosensors”, Nano Letters, 10, 567-572 (2010)

Y. Smith and H. Hess*: “Engineering the length distribution of microtubules polymerized in vitro”, Soft Matter, 6(8), 1778-1784 (2010)

A. Agarwal and H. Hess:“Biomolecular motors at the intersection of nanotechnology and polymer science”, Progress in Polymer Science, 35, 252-277 (2010)



H. Hess: “Reassembling Biological Machinery In Vitro”, Chemistry & Biology, 16, 917-918 (2009)

J. Kerssemakers, L. Ionov, U. Queitsch, S. Luna, H. Hess, and S. Diez*: “3D-Nanometer Tracking of Motile Microtubules on Engineered Surfaces”, Small, 5(15), 1732-1737 (2009)

A. Agarwal and H. Hess*: “Molecular motors as components of future medical devices and engineered materials”, Journal of Nanotechnology in Engineering and Medicine, 1(1), 011005.1–011005.9 (2009)

G.D. Bachand, H. Hess, B. Ratna, P. Satir, and V. Vogel: “'Smart dust' biosensors powered by biomolecular motors”, Lab on a Chip, 9, 1661-1666 (2009)

R. Tucker, A.K. Saha, P. Katira, M. Bachand, G.D. Bachand, and H. Hess: “Temperature Compensation for Hybrid Devices: Kinesin's Km is Temperature Independent”, Small, 5(11), 1279-1282 (2009)

P. Katira, A. Agarwal, and H. Hess: “A random sequential adsorption model for protein adsorption to surfaces functionalized with poly(ethylene oxide)”, Advanced Materials, 21(16), 1599-1604 (2009)

A. Agarwal, P. Katira, and H. Hess:“Millisecond Curing Time of a Molecular Adhesive Causes Velocity-Dependent Cargo-Loading of Molecular Shuttles”, Nano Letters, 9(3), 1170-1175 (2009)

T. Fischer, A. Agarwal, and H. Hess: “A smart dust biosensor powered by kinesin motors”, Nature Nanotechnology, 4, 162-166 (2009)

I. Finger, S. Phillips, E. Mobley, R. Tucker, and H. Hess: “Absolute brightness of fluorescent microspheres”, Lab on a Chip, 9, 476-478 (2009)



T. Nitta, A. Tanahashi, Y. Obara, M. Hirano, M. Razumova, M. Regnier, and H. Hess: “Comparing Guiding Track Requirements for Myosin- and Kinesin-Powered Molecular Shuttles”, Nano Letters, 8, 2305-2309 (2008)

R. Tucker, P. Katira, and H. Hess: “Herding Nanotransporters: Localized Activation via Release and Sequestration of Control Molecules,” Nano Letters, 8(1), 221-226, (2008)



P. Katira, A. Agarwal, T. Fischer, H.Y. Chen, X. Jiang, J. Lahann, and H Hess: “Quantifying the performance of protein-resisting surfaces at ultra-low protein coverages using kinesin motor proteins as probes”, Advanced Materials, 19(20), 3171-3176 (2007)

T. Fischer and H. Hess: “Materials chemistry challenges in the design of hybrid bionanodevices: supporting protein function within artificial environments”, Journal of Materials Chemistry, 17, 943–951 (2007)

R.K. Doot, H. Hess, and V. Vogel: “Engineered networks of oriented microtubule filaments for directed cargo transport”, Soft Matter 3(3), 349-356 (2007) COVER



J. Kerssemakers, J. Howard, H. Hess, and S. Diez: “The distance that kinesin-1 holds its cargo from the microtubule surface measured by fluorescence interference contrast microscopy”, Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, 103(43), 15812-7 (2006)

H. Hess: “Self-assembly driven by molecular motors”, Soft Matter 2, 669-667 (2006)

R. Seetharam, Y. Wada, S. Ramachandran, H. Hess, and P. Satir: “Long-term storage of bionanodevices by freezing and lyophilization”, Lab on a Chip, 6, 1239-42 (2006)

T. Nitta, A. Tanahashi, M. Hirano, and H. Hess: “Simulating molecular shuttle movements: Towards computer-aided design of nanoscale transport systems”, Lab on a Chip, 6(7), 881-885 (2006)

H. Hess: “Toward Devices Powered by Biomolecular Motors”, Science, 312(5775), 860-861 (2006)

S. Ramachandran, K.H. Ernst, G.D. Bachand, V. Vogel, and H. Hess: “Selective loading of kinesin-powered molecular shuttles with protein cargo and its application to biosensing”, Small 2(3), 330-334 (2006) COVER.

G.D. Bachand*, S.B. Rivera, A. Carroll-Portillo, H. Hess, and M. Bachand: “Active capture and transport of virus particles using a biomolecular motor-driven, nanoscale antibody sandwich assay”, Small 2(3), 381-385 (2006)



H. Hess* and G.D. Bachand*: “Biomolecular Motors”, Materials Today (NanoToday supplement), 8(12) suppl. 1, 22-29 (2005)

T. Nitta and H. Hess: “Dispersion in active transport by kinesin-powered molecular shuttles”, Nano Letters, 5(7), 1337-1342 (2005)

H. Hess, J. Clemmens, C. Brunner, R. Doot, S. Luna, K.H. Ernst and V. Vogel: “Molecular self-assembly of 'Nanowires' and 'Nanospools' using active transport”, Nano Letters, 5(4), 629-633 (2005)

C. Brunner, K.-H. Ernst, H. Hess*, V. Vogel: “Lifetime of biomolecules in polymer-based hybrid nanodevices”, Journal of Nanotechnology, 15(10), S540-S548 (2004)

H. Hess, G. D. Bachand, and V. Vogel: “Powering nanodevices with biomolecular motors”, Chemistry – A European Journal, 10(9), 2110-2116 (2004)

J. Clemmens, H. Hess, R. Doot, C. M. Matzke, G. D. Bachand, V. Vogel: “Motor-protein 'roundabouts': Microtubules moving on kinesin-coated tracks through engineered networks”, Lab on a Chip, 4(2), 83-86 (2004)

H. Hess, M. Antia, and V. Vogel: “Integrating dual-color imaging capability into a monochromator”, Review of Scientific Instruments, 75(1), 266-269 (2004)

H. Hess, C. Matzke, R. Doot, J. Clemmens, G. Bachand, B. Bunker, and V. Vogel: “Molecular shuttles operating undercover: A new photolithographic approach for the fabrication of structured surfaces supporting directed motility”, Nano Letters, 3, 1651-1655 (2003)

J. Clemmens, H. Hess, J. Howard, V. Vogel, “Analysis of microtubule guidance by microfabricated channels coated with kinesin”, Langmuir, 19, 10967-10974 (2003)

H. Hess, J. Howard, and V. Vogel: “A piconewton forcemeter assembled from kinesins and microtubules”, Nano Letters, 2(10), 1113-5 (2002)

H. Hess, J. Clemmens, C.M. Matzke, G.D. Bachand, B.C. Bunker, and V. Vogel: “Ratchet patterns sort molecular shuttles”, Applied Physics A, 75, 309-313 (2002)

H. Hess, J. Clemmens, J. Howard, and V. Vogel: “Self-propelled nanoscale probes for surface imaging”, Nanoletters, 2(2), 113-116 (2002)

H. Hess and V. Vogel: “Molecular shuttles based on motor proteins: Active transport in synthetic environments”, Reviews in Molecular Biotechnology, 82, 67-85 (2001) – preprint.pdf(1MB)

H. Hess, J. Clemmens, D. Qin, J. Howard, and V. Vogel: “Light-Controlled Molecular Shuttles Made from Motor Proteins Carrying Cargo on Engineered Surfaces”, Nano Letters, 1 (5), 235-239 (2001).



A. Scheidemann*, V. Kresin, and H. Hess: “Capture of lithium by 4He clusters”, Journal of Chemical Physics, 107, 2839-2844 (1997)

H. Hess, D. S. Larsen, and A. A. Scheidemann*: “Measurement of pick-up cross-sections of 4He clusters: polar versus non-polar molecules”, Philosophical Magazine B, 79, 1437-1444 (1999)

H. Hess, S. Kwiet, L. Socaciu, S. Wolf, T. Leisner, and L. Wöste*: “The influence of the anion vibrational temperature on the fs-dynamics in a NeNePo experiment”, Applied Physics B, 71, 337-41 (2000)

H. Hess, K.R. Asmis, T. Leisner, and L. Wöste*: “Vibrational wave packet dynamics in the silver tetramer probed by charge-reversal femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy”, European Physics Journal D, 16, 145-149 (2001)



Rob Tucker: “Design, Fabrication, and Operation of hybrid bionanodevices for biomedical applications” (2.2Mb) [Doctoral thesis]. Gainesville, FL‎, University of Florida: 2009

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